The Romanian functional zoning system included in the technical regulation no. 5/2000 (Technical regulations for forest management planning) includes functional categories of forests with protective functions related to the cultural values in the area. The cultural values taken into account are historical or cultural monuments (1.4.e) as well as the aesthetic function (1.5.e). The forests in the category 1.4.e are included in functional type II (conservation cuttings) and forests with aesthetic functions are in functional type I (excluded from intervention).
The list of historical monuments in each county of Romania can be found on the website of the Ministry of Culture (http://cultura.ro/page/17). There are also mentions of forests that are mentioned in literary works and should be included as HCVF 6.
Other types of values mentioned are pilgrimages and hermitages sites, best identified through local stakeholder consultation.
Threats & Safeguards identification and evaluation
The management of forests located near cultural, historical, religious or recreational areas are not always included in the proper functional categories during management planning. This can lead to the application of high intensity harvests that affect the conservation values of these forests. For example, the media mentions cases of disputes related to HCV 6, in cases of monasteries or recreational forests.
In the case of Manastirea Varzaresti, Vrancea, a regeneration cut very close to the monastery is considered to be affecting the cultural values of the pilgrimage site (28). In another case, the citizens of Tarna Mare, Satu Mare County, have protested against the cutting of a forest with aesthetic function located near the Tarna Bai, in an area that is planned for the development of a recreational site (32).
The management of these forests is not practically threatened when they are included in type I or II of functional categories. In the rest of the functional types, an evaluation of the presence of cultural, historical or religious places shall be performed in the sourcing area, followed by consultation of the local communities in relation to any other presence of recreational or other type of cultural values close to the supply area. Thus, the risk is considered specified for forest management areas not classified under Type I or II of the functional categories.
Conservation forest:Low Risk
Production forest and forested pastures: Specified Risk
Biomass plantation: Not applicable for HCV1
- Technical regulation no. 5/2000 (Technical regulations for forest management planning)
- Ministry of Culture, 2015, List of historical monuments in Romania http://cultura.ro/page/17
- Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests, Map of high risk for illegal logging, (http://www.mmediu.ro/categorie/paduri/25)
- News article: Clearcut Forest. How the Forest Directorate harvests the oak trees in a protected area in Vrancea Sub-Carpathians (Pădure rasă. Cum seceră Direcția Silvică stejarii din aria protejată Subcarpații Vrancei) http://www.romaniacurata.ro/padure-rasa-cum-seceradirectia-silvica-stejarii-din-aria-protejata-subcarpatii-vrancei/
- News article: People detained in the case of illegal logging in Buzau – how the forest is emptied with a carriage – 20000 hectares of forest unguarded, Rețineri în cazul tăierilor ilegale de la Buzău. Cum se goleşte pădurea cu căruţa. 20.000 de hectare de pădure fără pază!
- Material shall not originate from areas where HCVs are present, unless there is evidence that confirms that local communities and Indigenous Peoples are engaged, and their requirements are met.
- It shall be verified whether the management plan has taken HCV 6 into account.
- Verification of cultural and historical monuments location (The list of historical monuments in each county of Romania can be found on the website of the Ministry of Culture (http://cultura.ro/page/17, http://egispat.inp.org.ro/). Note: the database does not include recreational forests.
- If management plan does not take HCV6 into account, public consultation with local communities and relevant representatives of the cultural and social organisations shall prove that there are no HCV6 within the area of the FMU, or that appropriate safeguards have been implemented.
It is important to remember that the appropriate way to maintain or enhance each value will depend on the value itself. There are a variety of possible options to maintain or enhance various HCVs, which include:
- Conservation set-asides (e.g. appropriately designed protected areas, buffer zones, habitat corridors)
- Local government and NGO support (e.g. extending or renewing leases, preventing inappropriate development, supporting company conservation initiatives).