• Forest critical to water sources (Forest management plans, HCVF Toolkit)
  • Forests critical to erosion control (Forest management plans, HCVF Toolkit)
  • Forests critical to agricultural lands and air quality (Forest management plans, HCVF Toolkit)


The category 4 of HCV is well represented in Romania. The functional zoning system used in forest management planning (Technical regulation 5/2000) separates distinctly the forests with ecosystem protective functions falling under group 1, corresponding to HCV 4:

  • HCV4.1 – Functional subgroup I.1 Forests Protecting Water Sources
  • HCV4.2 – Forests for soil protection and erosion mitigation
  • HCV4.3 – Forests for protection against climatic and industrial threats

The identification and mapping of these forests is done within the forest management plans and are further corroborated with hydrological, geological, agricultural and soil erosion maps.

Threats & Safeguards identification and evaluation

The forest management plans include special measures for each type of functional category that is related to HCV4. The restrictions to the appliance of silvicultural measures refer both to regeneration cuts and thinning (Technical regulations no. 5/2000). There are certain functional categories that restrict the application of commercial thinning or require low intensity thinning (especially in cases of high slopes, geology vulnerable to erosion or water sources of high importance). The  identification system is applied for almost 60 years (since 1954) and there is a high level of awareness among forestry specialists about these conservation values.

Most of the functional categories that are included in these subgroups are treated as conservation areas, included in Type II of management, which only allows max. 10 % of standing stock to be harvested during a decade, only for regeneration and maintenance purposes (Technical regulations no. 5). Certain functional categories are included in functional type III and IV, which require single tree selection or shelterwood systems with long regeneration periods and restrictions regarding the spatial distribution of the cuts.

Overall the level of safeguards and compliance with them connected to HCV 4 values are good. Thus, the risk from forest management activities to threatening HCV 4 values is considered low.

  • Vlad, R.G., Bucur, C., Turtica, M., (coord.), 2013, A practical guide for the identification and management of high conservation value forests, Editura Green Steps, Brasov, http://certificareforestiera.ro/doc/HCVF%20Toolkit_WWF.pdf
  • Halalisan, A.F., Enescu, R.E., 2015, Procesul de certificare a managementului forestier in Romania [Forest management certification process in Romania], Revista padurilor, vol 130, issue 3-4
  • Technical Regulations for forest management plan drafting (No. 5)
  • Ministerial Order 1540/2011 regarding the approval of timber harvesting instructions
  • Public summaries of FSC forest management certification reports published at info.fsc.org (information on legal areas where noncompliances have been identified during the certification process that are likely to be common for non-certified operations);