International, national, and sub national treaties, laws, and regulations related to protected areas allowable forest uses and activities, and/or, rare, threatened, or endangered species, including their habitats and potential habitats. Risk relates to illegal harvesting within protected sites, as well as illegal harvest of protected species. Note that protected areas may include protected cultural sites, including sites with historical monuments.

Law no. 95/2016 regarding the establishment of the National Agency for Protected Areas and for modification of Emergency ordinance 57/2007 regarding the protected areas regime and habitat conservation [LEGE nr. 95 din 11 mai 2016 privind înfiinţarea Agenţiei Naţionale pentru Arii Naturale Protejate şi pentru modificarea Ordonanţei de urgenţă a Guvernului nr. 57/2007 privind regimul ariilor naturale protejate, conservarea habitatelor naturale, a florei şi faunei sălbatice]:

http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/178452

Emergency ordinance 57/2007 regarding the protected areas regime, conservation of natural habitats an wild flora and fauna [ORDONANŢĂ DE URGENŢĂ nr. 57 din 20 iunie 2007, privind regimul ariilor naturale protejate, conservarea habitatelor naturale, a florei şi faunei sălbatice]:

http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/83289

Decision no. 230/2003 on the delimitation of biosphere reserves, national parks and natural parks and setting up their administrations:

http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/42901

Law 5/2000 on the approval of the National Landscaping – Section III – protected areas (Art. 10):

http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/21860

Order no. 1052/2014 approving the Methodology for protected natural areas custody (Art. 29, 5):

http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocumentAfis/161580

Ministerial order 19/2010 for approval of the Methodological guide for adequate evaluation of potential effects of the plans or projects on natural protected areas of community importance [ORDIN nr. 19 din 13 ianuarie 2010 pentru aprobarea Ghidului metodologic privind evaluarea adecvată a efectelor potenţiale ale planurilor sau proiectelor asupra ariilor naturale protejate de interes comunitar]:

http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/115888

Order 1417/2016 regarding the establishment of the National Catalogue of Virgine and Quasivirgine forests in Romania [Ordinul nr. 1417/2016 privind constituirea Catalogului naţional al pădurilor virgine şi cvasivirgine din România]:

http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/180307

Law 137/2010 for ratifying the Protocol regarding the conservation and sustainable use of biological and landscape diversity [Legea nr. 137/2010 pentru ratificarea Protocolului privind conservarea şi utilizarea durabilă a diversităţii biologice şi a diversităţii peisajelor, adoptat şi semnat la Bucureşti la 19 iunie 2008, la Convenţia-cadru privind protecţia şi dezvoltarea durabilă a Carpaţilor, adoptată la Kiev la 22 mai 2003]:

http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/120402

Ordinance no. 1964/2007 protected area of sites of Community importance as part of the European ecological network Natura 2000 in Romania.

Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests
Environmental Protection Agency
Forest Guard
National and Nature Park Administrations
Custodians of Natura 2000 sites

Nature protection area management plan, implemented in the Forest Management Plan (if applicable)
Harvest plan approved by the custodian of the Natura 2000 site or park administration (if applicable)

Government sources

Ministry of Environment (2015): Water and Forests, Mapping of the potential risk areas for illegal logging and illegal timber trade in Romania. Available at:

http://www.mmediu.ro/categorie/paduri/25

Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests (2016) The stage of approval of management plans for Parks reservations and Natura 2000 sites. Available at:

http://www.mmediu.ro/articol/baza-de-date-privind-ariile-naturale-protejate-si-aprobarea-planurilor-de-management-ale-acestora/1664

Non-Government sources

WWF-DC (2006): County level maps of the potential risk areas for illegal logging and illegal timber trade in Romania and HCVFs. Available at:

http://www.certificareforestiera.ro/pag/harta_risc.php

Mediafax (2013): Illegal deforestation: Over 900 ha of forests clearcut in Arges, in a protected area – declaration of Lucia Varga – Minstry of Water and Forests [Defrişări ilegale: Peste 900 de hectare de pădure tăiată la ras în Argeş, într-o zonă protejată]. Available at:

http://www.mediafax.ro/social/defrisari-ilegale-peste-900-de-hectare-de-padure-taiata-la-ras-in-arges-intr-o-zona-protejata-11601701

Overview of Legal Requirements

The nature protection system includes one biosphere reserve, 12 National Parks, 13 Natural Parks, 383 Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and 148 Special Protection Areas (SPA).

All forest areas have to be under the administration of state or private Forest Management Enterprises (FME), regardless of the fact that certain areas are included in a protection site. The custody of protected areas focuses on the management of the objectives that led to their establishment (protection of species, landscapes etc.) and not to the administration of the resources (forests, pastures etc.).

The national and natural parks have a separate administration, while the custody of other reservations, SCI or SPA is subject to auctioning. Auctions are organised by the Environmental Protection Agency and custody can be assigned to private or state Forest Management Enterprises, environmental NGOs, research or educational institutions or existing park administrations.

The protected area database of the Ministry of Environment, Water and Forests lists 691 protected sites, some of them overlapping with the aforementioned protected areas (http://www.mmediu.ro/categorie/arii-naturale-protejate/16 ).

There is an on-going effort to draft management plans for the national parks and other Natura 2000 sites. The drafted plans are in different stages of approval by different institutions of the state, Database on Protected Natural Areas and their management plans approvals(http://www.mmediu.ro/articol/baza-de-date-privind-ariile-naturale-protejate-si-aprobarea-planurilor-de-management-ale-acestora/1664). The parks and Natura 2000 sites overlap with and contain, in most cases, strictly protected natural reserves, which can be located both in forests and in other types of land ecosystems.

Timber sourcing is permitted in areas of the sites that are not included in the strict reserve. However, any harvest in the parks or Natura 2000 sites must be pre-approved by the local environmental agencies or park administrations. Identified buffer zones, protected habitats and species are to be protected as set-aside areas specified in the forest management plan.

Description of risk

Risk of:

  • Protected areas without a valid management plan – there are still 16 parks and 47 Natura 2000 without a valid management plan in Romania, which can lead to illegal harvesting and wrong harvesting techniques. (http://www.mmediu.ro/articol/baza-de-date-privind-ariile-naturale-protejate-si-aprobarea-planurilor-de-management-ale-acestora/1664);
  • Insufficient stakeholder consultation during the development of the management plans for protected areas, which can affect the quality of the management plans;
  • Insufficient integration of protected areas management plans into Forest Management Plans which can lead to the use of wrong management techniques;
  • Lack of information regarding the management plan of forest district staff
  • Conflict of interest between the forest administrators and the Natura 2000 custodians or park administration (there are cases where they are one and the same, even though, for example, the custodian has to approve the forest harvest plan of the FME);
  • Illegal logging in protected areas (examples have been given by environmental NGOs, and there has been a declaration by delegates of the Ministry of Water and Forests about massive clearcuts in protected areas). The WWF has produced county-by-county maps of areas with high risks for illegal logging and HCVFs identified as strictly protected areas (1.1, 3D) (WWF-DC, 2006).

Risk conclusion

This indicator has been evaluated as specified risk. Identified laws are not upheld consistently by all entities and/or are often ignored, and/or are not enforced by relevant authorities.

Generic

  • All legally protected areas (including species habitats) shall be included in the management plan or related documentation if required by the legislation.
  • Legally established procedures for surveying, managing and protecting endangered or threatened species within the management unit shall be followed.
  • Nature protection regulations, such as protected areas, set-aside areas, protected species and hunting, shall be established and upheld.

Country Specific

  • FME staff shall demonstrate knowledge about the location of protected areas in the managed FMUs, protection objectives and protective measures in the protected area management plan (if applicable).
  • The FMP shall include measures to ensure the conservation status of the protected area (if applicable).
  • Field verifications shall also include parts of the protected areas.
  • FME shall implement a system for controlling harvesting sites that includes verifications of protected area management measures.